Why parenting can never have a rule book: children's genetics significantly affect how they are parented

A recent meta-analysis of numerous studies involving more than 14,600 pairs of twins has demonstrated that children's genetics can significantly affect how they are parented. Researchers Reut Avinun and Ariel Knafo sought to determine if individual differences in children change the way carers respond to them.

The study found that children’s innate characteristics account for around 23% of differences in parenting style. They concluded that in light of this evidence any interventions to improve parenting should consider both the parent and the child relationally, rather than just the parent’s behaviour in isolation.